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Flash – March 19, 2020
I am going to write here what I think the life of Jana Inglis Paschall Parker Paine (1674 – 1744) was like. We have not been able to trace her before 1719 when her Bible’s history was revealed in modern publication. The signature page of that 1566 Bible held an amazing assortment of surnames. This Bible, analyzed by historian, Gordon Bond of NJ, showed efforts of alteration until it was only recognized as a book (boook). The publication failed to mention the fact of two very prominent signatures. These signatures, one dated 1730, are of great concern to us at the Paschal – Paschall genealogy site.
The signature of William Paschall has been noted in about 10 different documents over a span of years (1729-1774) in different styles of age and place. His place of birth is as yet unknown, but he fathered 13 children by his 3 wives, all of whom lived to adulthood. An amazing fact for the time.
William, affectionately known as William Paschall of, ” the North Carolina Land Grants”, often stylized his given name as, ‘Will’m, and added a final flourish to the end of his name. He had a very good education of the time and a knowledge of ancient history.
His name 1st appears to us in this Bible followed by his signature in 1729 to the will, as witness, of Thomas Pike of Woodbridge, NJ. These people were all located at the eastern base of what is known as Strawberry Hill, Woodbridge, Middlesex Co, NJ.
I wondered why his signature appeared twice on a crowded page where others signed also. After all these years my conclusion is that it was two different persons and not just one. More it is likely that they were father and son, the younger being the dated one. The father dying after 1704, before 1709.
Evidence was found that Jana was known as the mother of William Paschall, the assumption being that she had 1st married a Paschall before or about 1703, place unknown, and as a widow had married Samuel Parker, c1708, likely Woodbridge, no record found, but 4 sons were born to them.
The Bible, a very expensive, large, edition, had on a page a notation that the book belonged to Jana; It had been seriously altered and insertions added, and fancy penmanship (cartography, c1650) used in various religious prayers. These seem to mean it belonged formally to a religious person. I think Jana had assumed ownership and attempted to show it now belonged to her. She made an attempt to remove any former owner’s ID. Why else to razor out the 1st pages of the Bible?
An extensive effort was made to locate any reference to Jana. Strange thing were found. Jana after Samuel’s death had married a businessman, Jonathan Paine, whom died also. Jana was the executrix of both of these men and in order to try to collect debts owed to them had filed lawsuits to the number of 32 in the Middlesex Supreme court. In one of these a local affray occurred that caused Jana to lose her Tavern license, it named Jana as mother to William Paschall and John Parker who evidently were serving drinks after hours. This was a minor offense but Jana evidently showed her Scots heritage in offensive language so lost her license. Jana died in 1744 and was buried in the Presbyterian church cemetery where a notation stated her age as 76? No probate proceeding has been found. She was listed in apprenticeships of 2 sons. Her famous son James Parker, never named her nor did William Paschall except for a strange bequest in his will.
William (will’m) Paschall, C, died 1774 in Bute (Warren) Co, NC, and left a will. In his will he named a daughter, Dianna, N, who had married Richard King and had a son, Engles (so spelled). He left a bequest to Engles when he became of age. Why? He had numerous grandsons. In later years this Engles was known as Inglis/Englis (Eureka, I have it).
Not only did William want to show his respect to his mother but he had the Latin/Greek education necessary to do it in this manner. Why so secretive? I think we shall never know why….
The search continues along another ally (link William to B-line of Bristol) and so we leave Jana to her peace.
PS: With lots of help from Linda Stewart and Brian Rodriguez
Flash – March 23, 2019
I have been corresponding the Paschall researcher Brian Rodriguez regarding Jana’s sibling who we believe may have been Thomas Inglis. Brian has made some significant finds on a Thomas Inglis which should be incorporated into the information on Jana.
Brian writes … Here is what I have found so far on potential relatives of Jana. I did a search on Inglis, Ingles, and English in the Scottish Covenanters Index for birth dates from 1640 to 1680. There were 53 variations of Inglis found (all of them in Scotland, none in England).
The earlier birth dates (prior to 1645) and the later dates (after 1655) yielded only 7 Inglis’. Those 7 were born somewhat removed from the Scotland/England border (near Glasgow, Edinburgh, Perth).
Of the 46 born about 1645 to 1655, only 15 were born near the Scotland/England border. I realize that Jana’s relations may not have necessarily been born near the border, but the odds of her meeting a Paschall from England seems like a good place to at least start the search.
Of the 15 born near the border, 10 were from Kirkcudbright, 1 from Borg, 1 from Cavers, 1 from Rutherfuird, and 2 from Moffat.
In addition, I found a Thomas Inglis who may be Jana’s brother. He was born in 1678, died in 1734 in Perth Amboy, Middlesex Co., New Jersey, and was buried in the Saint Peters Churchyard in Perth Amboy. I also found a baptismal record for a Thomas Inglis born in 1678 in West Linton, Peebles, Scotland. His parents are William Inglis and Marion Sibbald. Peebles is about halfway between Edinburgh and the border.
There are 2 William Inglis’ in the list of 46 Scottish Coventanters. One was born in about 1655 in Glasgow, who was a mason and was banished. The other was born about 1655 somewhere in Scotland.
I need to figure out how to find the original sources for these records (index). I also did a search for all Paschall’s born about 1645 to 1665 in Kent, England (since that was where the Rev. John Lothrop was born), but the search yielded zero hits.
Note: The Scottish Covenanters Index 1630-1712 may be viewed through Ancestry.
I believe that Brian is right-on about the Thomas Inglis thing. Researchers may be able to find more information about Thomas Inglis in Perth-Amboy. I looked in the book “Genealogies of New Jersey Families, Volume I.” and there is a Thomas Inglis listed. The Thomas in the NJ Families [married in 1740] is a different Thomas from Brian’s baptismal record [born in 1678] according to the dates listed. The NJ Thomas’ family were Presbyterian and his father’s, Thomas Sr., occupation was an Innkeeper. Thomas is a definite relative of Jana, and probably financed the apprenticeship of her son John Parker, as women generally could not.
Below are some of the sources we are referring to:
Source: Genealogies of New Jersey Families, Volume I, Genealogical Society of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, pp 515-516. (This book is can still be purchased through Amazon. )
2d. ELIZABETH LOOFBOURROW, dau. of John and Abigail (Wade) Loofbourrow, mar. Dec. 10, 1740, Thomas Inglis (MB), son of Thomas and Mary Inglis. Thomas Inglis was a shoemaker in Amboy. His father was the innkeeper on the dock in Amboy, where there “is good entertainment for Man and Horse.” Elizabeth d. Sept. 11, 1797. She had 5 children:
2d1. Thomas Inglis, b. Oct. 26, 1742, Amboy, d. May 9, 1786, N. Y. C.
2d2. Anna Inglis, b. Sept. 7, 1743, Amboy, d. October 23, 1818, N.Y.C., mar. Oct. 3, 1761, Perth Amboy, Samuel Noe of New York. They had at least 2 children; Susannah, who mar. —– Hunt; Samuel, b. 1768, N.Y.C. (1st Presby. Church rec., N.Y.C).
2d3. John Inglis, b. Oct. 11, 1745, Amboy, N. J., d. Nov. 3, 1769, Florida.
2d4. Abigail Inglis, b. Sept. 29, 1747, Amboy, N. J.., d. Feb. 4, 1815, Perth Amboy, mar. May 6, 1768, Amboy, N. J. Robert Eastburn, b. Aug. 2, 1743, Phila., d. Aug 19, 1815, New Brunswick, N. J., son of Capt. Robert and Agnes (Jones) Eastburn, Jr. Children: Robert, Joseph, Mary Ann, Abigail, mar. James Boyer; Thomas, mar. April 27, 1805, Ann, dau. of Joseph and Marry (Kennedy) White.
2d5. Elizabeth Inglis, b. Nov. 7, 1749, Amboy, d. Sept 12, 1804.
2e. ISAAC LOOFBOURROW, son of John and Abigail (Wade) Loofbourrow, b. in Perth Amboy, and signed the wedding bond of Samuel Noe to Anna Inglis of Perth Amboy, Oct. 2, 1761. Anna Inglis was the dau. of Isaac’s sister Elizabeth (2d.)
Collections of the New-York-Historical Society: For the Year 1909, by New-York Historical Society, page 160, 198, & 199.
160 INDENTURES OF APPRENTICES, 1718-1727
Registered for Mr. John Taylor the 13th day of December Anno Dom 1723.
Indenture of John Parker son of Samuel Parker of Woodbridge in the Providence of New Jersey and with the consent of his Father and also his Mother Jana Parker to John Taylor, Braiser from September 1st, 1723 for Nine years.
Usual form including “find and provide unto the said Apprentice sufficient Meat, Drink, Apparel, Lodging and Washing fitting for an Apprentice AND during the first five years of the above Said Term Shall put the said Apprentice to the Night School to perfect him in his writing and Arethmetick [sic] & at the Expiration of Said Term Shall give to his Apprentice two Very Good New Suits of Apparel besides his Common Apparel & also Six good New Shirts with Neck cloths & Handkerchiefs Suitable for & Proportionable to the Same …”
Signed August 30th 1723 by John Parker.
In the presence of Thomas Englis, Jana Parker, William Bradford.
Acknowledge August 31st 1723 before John Cruger
Memorandum I promise to give to my son John Parker bed and bed Cloaths [sic] for him to Lie on during his Apprenticeship & one suit of apparel & to make up the Shirts that he has to the Number of Six.
There are several persons in England/Scotland who look up and publish information in American Historical Societies. Some of these Societies include the Caswell County Historical Association in Caswell Co., NC, the Granville County Genealogical Society 1746, Inc., in Oxford, NC, and of course Societies in New Jersey. The New Jersey societies are listed at http://www.newjerseygenealogy.net/societies.html
To get the process going, you will need to join a Society and submit a query about Thomas Inglis, who was a Covenanter, or perhaps once a parson of the Church of England (thus a dissenter and possibly killed). What we need is Thomas Inglis’ parents and siblings, where he lived, etc.
Clarence & Linda
FLASH – March 17, 2019
Subject: Jana Inglis Parker Paine, c 1674 – Jan 1, 1744, Woodbridge, NJ
I became aware of Jana when I received a letter from the amateur historian, Gordon Bond, of Woodbridge, NJ. Gordon had obtained access to a 1566 Bible donated in 1871 by Henrietta Jane Bedford of Wilmington, DE, to the Delaware Historical Society along with other items of her family. Gordon was contacting me because of the two signatures of William Paschall, one dated 1730, on a blank page in the Bible. He was aware of my work as a genealogist of the Paschal-Paschall family. Henrietta had, evidently, made photos, c 1871, of 2 pages of writing in the bible. Gordon also made later photos which he sent to me.
His Query: Who was William Paschal?
It has taken me 44 years to try to answer that question. Many, many people have aided me in that quest, mostly now deceased. My freepages Paschal – Paschall site is the result of that quest. Twenty-thousand persons in the last 10 years have visited that site. Plus, about half that many before 2006.
After receiving Gordon’s letters I decided to abandon research except for the colonial (before 1776) era. I did this to concentrate on learning more about William Paschal’s prior life and parent’s. This is a specialized area of research, no censuses or vital records. Mostly family records, Bibles and Wills and Land records. There are very few records of particular individuals who did not distinguish themselves in history. Mostly these records were preserved by the family themselves in various conditions of weather, etc. Ordinary paper falls to dust in about 100 years or less.
The above Bible, published 1566 in London, was in bad condition in 1871. Pages cut out, new ones inserted, binding broken, loose sections, paper crisp, breaking, ink faded.
In spite of all this the pages with writing was mostly legible. So I began a 10 year search, 2006-2016, to learn what I could about William’s ancestry. Others joined in; mostly Mrs. Margie Daniels of Memphis, TN, discovering documents of the period/place. Also, as time went on, much more development occurred in the placement of documents online which is a boon to the researcher.
There were major breakthroughs: a researcher of the King family of Warren Co, NC, traced the family of Richard and Dianna (Paschal, M), King to Kentucky and noticed that their son, Engles, used English as a given name. On looking up the history of the names Engles, Inglis, Englis, Ingles I was astonished to learn that Inglis was the Scottish word for English. Engles was a corruption of Ingles. Then I learned that beginning in 1683, English ships sailing from Scotland arrived on the eastern shores of America in the so called,”Scottish Invasion”. This was a profound happening; with a Scottish Lord Perth buying a large tract and even changing the name of the port, Amboy Point to Perth Amboy!
It actually took me a while to realize just what I had discovered. In the Bible Jana (Janna) had written it was, “her Bible”. This Bible was 10 x 15 inches and huge. It cost originally about the wages of a yeoman for 1-2 years (50-100 pds).
From her later employments, Jana was executrix of the estates of both her husbands, she (as Jana Payne, Pain) was sued and she sued for debt. There are over 30 dockets in the NJ Supreme Court to attest to this. At the time, this employment of a woman, is rare. So not only was she educated but of a high class; if a man she would have been termed, “Mr.” and ,”gentleman”(means: independently wealthy).
Then I had the final awakening: William in writing his will did a strange thing. He had at least 26 grandsons, but he made the provision in his land bequest to Richard and Dianna that at their decease the land should descend to his grandson, Engles! Note: William likely dictated his will to son, Dennis; Dennis then wrote the name as a phonic, Engles.
Why did William go to the trouble to make this provision?
I think he simply wanted a remembrance of Jana Inglis; this was 30 years later. Jana died about the time William and family left NJ.
In the Bible William’s signature occurs about as close as it could be to Jana’s. A Bible is a very personal thing usually reserved for family memories. This was a British family and all the class structure and stricture of this society must have existed here. In the records I see the separation of the servants from the family, etc. In some cases they state that the servants were not named in the ships list. In classic literature I see such terms as, “marry come up”. This is when a marriage occurred where a lower class married into a higher class, a no no.
My only conclusion from all this and lacking further information, is that William was family to Jana Inglis. I do not know to what degree this relation was: ie, mother, aunt, cousin, in-law, adopted but, nevertheless, family.
In the search for information Margie Daniels found and sent to me the most important item found to date:
Book: Genealogies of NJ Families, A-Z, by Joseph R. Kleet, reprint 1996, pp. 687-88
This book is currently for sale ($82) so only previews are available online.
The listed pages give a lot of information that was known by Lewis D. Cook, the author of the original article; there are small typos but the information seems to be from the Parker Bible (the same one) of the Gunning Bedford family. The author did not include William Paschall in the article? He seemed to be using information from a “Boook, 1719”. Lewis was, seemingly, a friend of the family of Gunning Bedford, Jr. None of the children of Gunning Bedford, Jr., never married so the line ended.
The article shows Jana married Samuel Parker and had 4 sons. I think It was the 1st marriage for Samuel (an error had him married to a Ford) and it seems likely Inglis was the maiden name of Jana. Two of Jana’s sons had indentures, John and James. James was the famous printer. A witness to John’s indenture was Thomas Inglis, Innkeeper, Perth Amboy, likely a relative to Jana. Thomas has a listing in the book cited above.
Jana’s 2nd husband was a rich merchant , Nathaniel Paine, he had a deed to William Bradford, printer, to whom James was bonded. Nathaniel was present and married to Jana and he was with William Paschal when he bought land in Essex Co, 1729.
The state of New Jersey has an archives which lately has established some online access to various documents. One of these is the NJ Supreme Court. The court held sessions alternately in Burlington and Perth Amboy. The dockets have been digitized and may be purchased. In these I found 3 belonging to William Paschal and over 30 of Jan(n)a Payne/Pain.
The debt suits have not been investigated as each costs $10 (over $300).There are 28 cases in the name: Janna Payne, 1734- 1741; 6 cases in the name: Janna Paine, 1737-1741; In 4 cases she was the executor, in 18 the plaintiff; in 5 the defendant. I have one of these; very poor copy, hard to read, difficult to understand.
I have case # 29483, Janna Paine vs. Samuel Dennis of Hunterdon Co, NJ. The docket consists of 6 narrow strips of legal paper (14″); these strips pertain to different functionaries of the court; sheriff, clerk, judge, attorney, plaintiff ( Janna), defendant (Samuel Dennis). There were several Samuel Dennis’s, I have no idea which this was.
Janna claimed Samuel owned her 50 pds; the court ordered the sheriff to bring Samuel to court. Seems like he was charged/found guilty and sentenced to jail until debt paid or until a review (unclear). At this time a debtor stayed in custody (debtor’s prison) until debt was satisfied or a bond for the amount plus costs was placed. I did not get info worth the $10 paid but you never know?
A trace of Inglis’ family’s has not brought forth anything further. It would seem some Scots jumped ship and disappeared into the crowd…avoiding embarrassments and servitude.
One of the witnesses to the indenture of James was Elizabeth Denne? Was she the daughter of Samuel Dennis, the father of Reliance Dennis? Did William marry her as a 2nd wife?
Many Questions have I; Answers I have not.
I have tried to trace the Thomas Inglis family; his children are known and a son, Thomas, Jr., shoemaker, is known because he married into the well known Loofbourrow family (same Book, see index). One reference to Thomas, Sr., innkeeper, is to his helping establish the Presbyterian Church in Perth Amboy in 1731.
The life of James Parker, printer, has been written, but I have not found where there was even a mention of his mother. Gordon Bond was going to write a biography but it has not been printed to date. The files on the Gunning Bedford, Jr., family by Lewis D. Cook are not accessible to the public. There were several persons of this name . See Wikipedia: Gunning Bedford, Jr. The monument put up by Henrietta Bedford to her father is awesome. See findagrave.com
In 1917, an index to the Presbyterian cemetery, Woodbridge, NJ, was taken and may be viewed today online. It notes how poor stone was used for monuments. Some having totally weathered away. Both Nathaniel and Janna Pain were buried there but Janna only a date of death, 1 January 1744, and the notation, “age 70”. How her age was determined is not known. I have found an indication to an earlier index, c 1849, but it may not exist today.
NOTICE: To all searchers. No information has been found for Jana prior to her residence in Woodbridge. Her given name may have been Dianna. Her date of arrival in NJ is not known. Her marriage to Samuel Parker seems to have occurred c 1709 from birth of sons. If she married a Paschal and had son, William, C, then that would seem to be c 1700, however, it may be that she adopted William.
To date (March 12, 2019) no more information has been found on Jana in America. The Bible shows an attempt to hide origin of the family. Jana’s birth year seems to have been c 1676. At that time, England/Scotland, were in a turmoil over religion. Charles, II, outlawed Presbyterians as he wanted only the Church of England and himself as head to be legal. Things happened that were terrible causing 1684-1685 to be known as, “the killing time” in history. This historical period and people are known as Convenanters. I believe research in this area would give the best chance of finding more information. I am too old and medically unable to continue research so I am putting down here what I think is the best approach.
I am going to send this letter to Linda Stewart to post or distribute as she wishes to interested persons.
I owe thanks too many people over the years for their interest and help in Paschal Family Research.
Come along and grow old with me for the best is yet to be….
FLASH – January 15, 2019
I recently visited the Bristol Ship Ledgers online. This is a large number of volumes that show the shipping from the port of Bristol England from 1400’s on up. Bristol ships sailed WEST.
I found the volumes for 1580-1700. They contain the following: Date, Name of ship, Name of Captain, Cargo, Destination. There is no information on passengers only on what was subject to import taxes. The Captains made their own bargains with people wanting passage.
Status of Jana Inglis (Paschal?) Parker Paine.
I have not been able to find more information on Jana. She seems to have been able to conceal her prior origins very well.
There may be information for people who lived in the border region of England-Scotland during the reign of Charles II, especially 1684-1685. This period was called, “the killing time”, by the Scots. I think Jana’s father was likely a Presbyterian Minister who was killed during this time. He may have originally been a minister of the English church. These ministers caught preaching any doctrine not sanctioned by the King were summarily executed by the English, without trial. The families had to leave the country quickly. Since America was still under English rule that would have been included but more lenient; you could swear to uphold the crown and get out with your head. There people in the colony were still considered to be criminals. Many of these went to New Jersey where we first found Jana.
This area of search is very difficult for us; you need British researchers of this period.
I have noted that Caswell Co, NC, has a number of letters exchanged with British persons but have not pursued that area.
I think Linda is doing a great job at the site.
Clarence and Linda
FLASH – October 31, 2018
We wrote an essay about what we know and do not know about Jana. It contains a lot of information especially the various court cases that Jana was involved in. We hope the information presented will aid you in your research.
Please send Clarence an email and tell us what you have found. We truly value your input.
Clarence and Linda
FLASH – Sept. 22, 2018
I find in researching that if something seems obscure of odd in a passage that I am reading then that is usually a clue that should be perused.
In the book “Genealogies of New Jersey Families, Volume I”, from the Genealogical Magazine of New Jersey, pages 687 & 688, title Samuel & Jana (Inglish) Parker of Woodbridge by Lewis D. Cook, P.A.S.G., it speaks of Jana’s bible and references the information from the bible page that is shown in the scrapbook section of William Paschall’s genealogy.
On page 687, second paragraph, it reads “IANA PARKER Boock 1719”. I supposed that the word “Broock” was a spelling error, and that it should be Boook. I did not take into consideration the printing or the spelling of the day. For example: Stephen Paschall, a blacksmith, placed an ad in The Pennsylvania Gazette, (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) – Thursday, 12 July 1770, Page 4, regarding some iron work items that were imported from Great Britain with the stamp S. Pachall. The article reads in part … is left out in the ftamp on the Englifh fickle. … I am now defirous of eftablifhing my fon in the fame bufinefs … You will notice that the ‘s’ is printed as a ‘f’.
Prior to Jana’s birth in 1674, they modified the alphabet and bent the ‘I’ at bottom to make a ‘J’. The letter ‘J’ was first distinguished from ‘I’ by the Frenchman Pierre Ramus in the 16th century. It did not become common in Modern English until the 17th century. The early 17th century works such as the first edition of the King James Version of the Bible (1611) continued to print the name with an ‘I’. Thus the reason Jana’s name is spelled Iana.
Still having the word “boock” in mind, I started researching documents written with that spelling for that time period. Reverend John Bramhall (1593-1653) was a well known religious person of the time just prior to Jana’s time. In his paper he is rebutting another person’s book where he mentions his work as boook.
I think the word boook is a Scots usage of the word carried over to England. It shows Jana’s education and that she may be Scottish.
Another clue in the “Genealogies of New Jersey Families, Volume 1” is the footnote reference for the entry for John Parker born October ye 18, 1711. The footnote reads: “John Parker, son of Samuel Parker of Woodbridge, Providence of New Jersey, with consent of his father and also his mother Jana Parker, apprentice to John Taylor, Braiser, from September 1st 1723 for nine years. Signed by John Parker in presence of Thomas Inglis, Jana Parker, William Bradford.”
We have been searching for Jana in England, but I believe we should also start tracing her in Scotland. Inglis is a Scottish surname. There are numerous references of Scottish men with the surname Inglis/Inglish being deported to America due to being captured in war. The gentlemen, Thomas Inglis, who signed with Jana as a witness for her son John Parker, may have been her brother.
Clarence & Linda
Flash – Sept. 4, 2018
I have an idea that the search for, “Jana’s secret”, has been directed to the wrong place. If you go to her scrapbook and put the signature page on screen you see a lot of signatures but you also see various other penned in forms. Education in 1730 was first to write your name, then as a higher scope was creative penmanship. If you look at Jana’s signature (and the other scribbles) you can see she was very good at penmanship. I think her and her son were both highly educated. William likely was the tutor to his half- brothers. Or was it Jana? Assuming it was Jana then we need to look at where she could have gotten the education. Not in NJ. Perhaps her father was highly educated and held a high position in England. The Inglis family was noted for their religious adherence to the English Church. In fact during the Revolutionary War the head of the English Church lived in NY city and Washington sat in the pews while a minister named Inglis ranted on about revolutionary’s. His estate (70,000 pds) was confiscated and he fled to Nova Scotia. The Bible signature page in color (photo by Gordon Bond) has clues so it must be studied carefully. Notice that the vellum is torn in the upper left side. Moving a little to the right you see a long vertical line. A Letter J to the right of that is the 3 letters, ‘ana” then further right the name, “Inglis”.
Now as a further clue go to Wikipedia.org/wiki/Round_hand Ego sum qui sum: this Bible is hand written in a 1660 classic calligraphy. This can only mean that Jana was taught by her father who was likely the original owner of the Bible! Furthermore, there was a Paschal in her life in England so that limits the area to two counties. That’s enough clues for now.
Clarence & Linda
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